Organizational neuroscience is an emerging field in management and organizational psychology that studies the role of the brain in workplace behavior. The aim is to investigate how neuroscience and its methodological toolkit (from brain imaging to hormonal studies) can advance theory and research in organizational behavior. We study, for example, the neural mechanisms involved in followership, the role of eye gazing in leadership emergence, and the hormonal correlates associated with prestige versus dominance-based leadership. We also use big data approaches to uncover potential biases in personnel selection, salaries and bonuses. Finally, we raise meta-theoretical questions about the field of organizational neuroscience, asking whether knowledge about the evolution of the human brain can aid modern organizational practices.